A quadrature mixer consists of two balanced mixers where the RF (or LO) ports are connected along with an in-phase power divider; the LO (or RF) ports are connected with a quadrature hybrid. There are two IF ports, "I" for the in-phase component and "Q" for the 90° out-of-phase component. They are available to the … Continue reading How to Use the Quadrature Mixer as a Phase Detector and Single Sideband Modulator
STZ series full waveguide band noise sources are silicon IMPATT diode based solid state noise sources. These noise sources implement high performance diode and propriety circuit design to offer high ENR with extreme flatness in entire waveguide bandwidth in the frequency range of 26.5 to 170 GHz in eight waveguide bands. The standard noise sources … Continue reading Noise Source Basics and SAGE Millimeter’s Full Band Noise Source Calibration Uncertainty
SAGE Millimeter offers Doppler Radar Target Simulators for Radar manufacturers and developers to test and evaluate their Radar systems’ performance in an economic way by replacing expensive and time-consuming field tests. The standard models are offered to cover common radar frequency bands of 24.125 GHz, 35 GHz, 77 GHz, 79 GHz and 94 GHz with … Continue reading Doppler Radar Target Simulators
It is industry practice to consider the Noise Figure (NF) of a Mixer equal to its conversion loss. This is a useful approximation, and it’s generally accurate within 0.5 dB, or, at any rate, within the uncertainty of a typical noise figure measurement. Rationale Behind this Industry Practice The reason behind this approximation is that … Continue reading Noise Figure of a Mixer
SAGE Millimeter offers harmonic mixers in two product families: SFH and STH. Their purpose is to extend the operation frequency of the spectrum analyzer and/or the frequency counter to millimeter-wave operations. These cover seven waveguide bands spanning across the frequency range of 26.5 to 170 GHz. The SFH series mixers are based on a balanced structure … Continue reading Which Harmonic Mixer Should I Use for My Spectrum Analyzer?
The dual polarized antenna is widely used in the industry due to its versatile characteristics. It is well known that the dual polarized antenna can support linear, elliptical, and circular polarized waveforms. Here are several application scenarios. Receiving Mode When the antenna receives a linearly polarized vertical waveform, only the vertical port can receive it. … Continue reading Dual Polarized Antennas from SAGE Millimeter, Inc.
The Faraday isolator is constructed with a longitudinal, magnetized ferrite rod that causes a Faraday rotation of the incoming RF signal. By properly biasing the ferrite, the isolator will cause low loss signal in one direction and high loss in the reverse direction. Faraday isolators have found wide applications in microwave systems due to its … Continue reading SAGE Millimeter’s Compact Faraday Isolators
Coaxial devices are widely used in the microwave industry and are increasingly being used at millimeterwave frequencies up to 110 GHz. Because SAGE Millimeter’s products and services focus on higher microwave and millimeterwave frequencies, only miniaturized connectors will be discussed here. The following are concepts, terms and definitions that are widely used and accepted in … Continue reading The Basics of Coaxial Connectors
Good impedance matching is required for the efficient transfer of signals between connected devices. Unfortunately a perfect match is rarely achieved. There are two common ways to express a device’s impedance mismatch: Return Loss and Standing-Wave Ratio (SWR). Both quantities describe the same phenomenon, but they have different interpretations. When a transmission line or waveguide … Continue reading Return Loss and SWR: Do They Represent the Same Thing?
SAGE Millimeter offers microwave and millimeterwave amplifiers and active multipliers in the frequency range of 10 MHz to 170 GHz. SAGE Millimeter’s standard amplifiers and active multipliers all have built-in regulators to protect the delicate microwave semiconductor devices. In addition, all amplifier and active multipliers have a built-in “charge pump” to generate negative bias so … Continue reading Bias Voltage Clarifications of SAGE Millimeter’s Amplifiers and Multipliers